How IEnumeberable might get you in trouble

Quite often I see a bug where a certain Factory method creates an IEnumeberable of objects.

While initially looking at the code you might not notice it, but that sort of code might lead to excessive creation of instances because of multiple enumeration of objects causing the factory method to create more objects that you expect.

For example let examine this bit of innocent looking code:
Continue reading “How IEnumeberable might get you in trouble”

Automatic Non-Deterministic Finalisation

The automatic mechanism cannot be deterministic, because it must rely on on the GC to discover whether the object is referenced or not. At times this behaviour is a show stopper. because temporary “resource leaks” or holding a shared resource locked for slightly longer than necessary might be unacceptable in an application. At others, it’s perfectly acceptable. I will focus on the scenarios where it is.

Any type can override protected Finilize method defined by System.Object to indicate that it required automatic finalisation. However the C# syntax for requesting automatic finalisation on a class A is to implement method ~A(). This method is called finiliser a must be invoked when the object is destroyed.

Incidentally any type can have a finalizer, even the value types. However the finalizer on the value type object will never be invoked.

Continue reading “Automatic Non-Deterministic Finalisation”

C#: Thread Safe Event calls

Sudhanshu's Ode to Code

Hello World,

While working on a multi-threaded Windows service that used events heavily, I did some research on how to trigger events in a thread safe manner. Inevitably, one looks for reference material or books that have the respect of the community and Jeffery Richter’s CLR via C# is one such resource.

The Context

In the chapter on Events (Chapter 11, pg 265 in the eBook), Jeffery summarizes the first 3 steps of how to raise events in a thread safe manner by providing a snippet for an extension method that can do this as such:

The above code is supposed to be an improvement over the following way where one uses a temp variable to store the passed in delegate instance and then compares the temp to null:

The reason why he proposes the code in the extension method over the simpler approach above is that though in theory…

View original post 262 more words

Benchmarking hash functions


It turns out that for integer hash tables implementations the identity function (f(x)=x) is preferred in most cases. This is a trade-off between speed and desirable properties such as uniform distribution that works well for integers. In essence the speed of attempted lookups is so fast that we can afford the increased number of collisions a naive hash function will give us.

For byte arrays such as strings this is not the case, and instead the opposite is true. Optimising the lookup algorithm is less important, and the properties of the hash function much more so.

To choose a good hash function we need to look at both speed, how quickly the hash is calculated, and how likely collisions are to occur in a given use case. We will start with looking at speed, or data throughput, of some of the most interesting potential candidates.

The benchmark

In this micro-benchmark…

View original post 220 more words

Value Types – When (not) to Use

Just to reiterate – What are the value types (structs, enums)

Value types are cut-down classes.  Imagine classes that don’t support inheritance or finalizers, and you have the cut-down version: the struct.  Structs are defined in the same way as classes (except with the struct keyword), and apart from the some limitations (described below) , structs can have the same rich members, including fields, methods, properties and operators.  

In the previous post I have also outlined several benefits of using value types:

1) They don’t require garbage collection
2) They use less space due to alignment and having no object header
3) Even though they are copied you can still get around the issue by using the ref keyword
4) By default value types are not nulluble, but you can wrap them into Nulluble,  essentially achieving the same semantics as a reference type.

However there are certain major drawbacks using value types:

Continue reading “Value Types – When (not) to Use”

Blog at

Up ↑